The resource package that I received for this VCrit provided us with some homework to do prior to the session and instructed us to make notes in our learning log. This was the first VCrit and naturally we had the inevitable tech problems. The VCrit was via Google Meet and I think this is the first time any of the students had used Google Meet. Eventually we reverted to using Google Hangout and the VCrit could then proceed. There were only four students on the VCrit and tutor Helen Warburton.
Exhibition 1: Lee Miller and Surrealism in Britain
What does The Hepworth Wakefield say? Read the listing for the exhibition and identify three key points which inform your initial impression of the exhibition.
- The exhibition focuses on collaborations with artists that Miller knew during the Surrealist period. Eileen Agar, Salvador Dali, Max Ernst, Rene Magritte and Henry Moore also feature in the exhibition. Britain was a Surrealist centre for a short while during the late 1930’s.
- It highlights Miller and her husband’s attempts to unite the work of the Surrealists artists – 1936 International Surrealism Exhibition in London and in 1937 ‘Surrealist Invasion’ of Cornwall.
- Miller was Man Ray’s apprentice. She was employed by Vogue during WWII as a war correspondent and photographed Hitler’s bunker and other war atrocities in a surrealist fashion.
What does the press say? Read Florence Hallett’s review in The Independent.
Lee Miller was a photographer, artist, muse and model. The exhibition places Miller at the centre of the Surrealist Movement. Her influences on other artists was just as important as the influences that she absorbed from other artists. She was instrumental in establishing the Surrealist Movement as a galvanized force in Britain. Political tensions in Europe saw the influx of Surrealist artists to Britain – International Surrealism Exhibition in 1936 and in 1937 Penrose (husband) organized the “Surrealist Invasion of Cornwall”. Miller’s post war work received less attention that the work she made during WWII, but she did play an active role in the emergence of pop art in 1953.
How does this article influence your initial impression of the exhibition – do you find it encouraging or off-putting? What elements interest you most and/or least?
Hallett’s review is more a condensed biography of Miller, touching very briefly on her involvement with Surrealism. The Hepworth Wakefield write up creates more interest than this article. The elements that interest me the most, I think, would be Miller’s WWII work.
What is Surrealism?
SURREALISM, n. Psychic automatism in its pure state, by which one proposes to express-verbally, by means of the written word, or in any other manner – the actual functioning of thought. Dictated by thought, in the absence of any control exercised by reason, exempt from any aesthetic or moral concern.
ENCYCLOPEDIA. Philosophy. Surrealism is based on the belief in the superior reality of certain forms of previously neglected associations, in the omnipotence of the dream, in the disinterested play of thought. It tends to ruin once and for all all other psychic mechanisms and to substitute itself for them in solving all the principal problems of life.” (Breton 1924, cited in Clayton, 2018:14)
[OCA Virtual Study Visit Resource Package]
The Art Story website describes this psychic automatism as artists bypassing logic and commonsense and giving way to their unconscious dreams or thoughts when making their work. Their work was heavily influenced by Karl Marx and also Sigmund Freud in his own work The Interpretation of Dreams (https://www.theartstory.org/movement-surrealism.htm).
Lee Miller and Surrealism in Britain Timeline
1924 – Andre Breton – Manifesto of Surrealism – abandon reason, give way to subconscious. Dream/Reality -> Surreality.
1928 – Breton publishes Surrealism & Painting.
1929 – Miller leaves NYC, arrives in Paris, works as Man Ray’s apprentice. Surrealist technique – solarisation.
1930 – Miller, working for Vogue sets up own studio. Acts as living statute in Jean Cocteau’s film The Blood of a Poet.
1932 – Miller breaks off relationship with Man Ray, returns to NYC, and exhibits as artist for first time. Man Ray alters his 1923 sculpture of a metronome Object to be Destroyed with a cut-out eye of Miller.
Sept 1932 – This Quarter publishes first English edition featuring Man Ray’s Object to be Destroyed with caption that viewer must destroy the sculpture with a single blow. (I guess Man Ray took the break up very badly).
1933 – Paul Nash writes to The Times – announces formation of Unit One – abstract artists & surrealists.
1934 – Miller married Egyptian Aziz Eloui Bey, moves to Cairo. Studies Arabic. Undergoes photo expeditions into the desert. Her Portrait of Space was seen by Rene Magritte in 1938, inspiring his ‘Le Baiser’.
1936 – Roland Penrose organizes International Surrealist Exhibition in London.
Summer 1937 – Miller meets Penrose in Paris, falls in love and together they organize ‘sudden surrealist invasion of Cornwall’.
Nov 1937 – Penrose & E.L.T. Mesens organize exhibition Surrealist Objects & Poems in London. Miller instructs Penrose to make sculpture Le Baiser (The Kiss) for the show.
1938 – Penrose and Mesens turn London Gallery into centre for surrealism. Launch art magazine, London Bulletin. Miller is featured in journal.
1939 – Miller returns to England. Becomes photographer for British Vogue. Does fashion and society spreads detailing war time conditions.
1940 – Final exhibition of English Surrealist Group – Surrealism Today opens at Zwemmer Gallery one week post Dunkirk evacuation. Miller’s work exhibited.
1941 – Miller’s photos of London during Blitz published in Grim Glory: Pictures of Britain under Fire.
1942 – Miller receives press accreditation as official war correspondent for US forces covering Home Front in Great Britain.
1944-45 -Miller only female journalist in European combat zones. Documents D-Day and liberation of concentration camps for British & American Vogue.
1947 – Miller gives birth to son Antony.
1949 – Miller & Penrose purchase Farley Farm in Sussex.
1953 – Miller contributes to The Wonder and the Horror of the Human Head at Institute of Contemporary Arts, London – images of human heads – gendered ways of looking – prefigures pop art.
1953 – Miller’s photos of visiting surrealist friends feature in Working Guests – final assignment for Vogue. Featured artists doing household chores.
1953-1977 – Miller largely retired from photography. Passed away 1977. Penrose became leading art historian and was knighted in 1966.
Text Panels and Thumbnails – Make reflective notes for your learning log about the subject matter, writing style, areas
of personal interest or analysis.
By re-presenting artwork from the two Surrealist exhibitions we gain a better understanding of what/who Miller received her influences from and I think this helps to put her own work into a broader context. The way the gallery presented the text panels was good. I personally would have like to see more explanations about some of the work.
GALLERY 8 – a little more history is given on Miller’s earlier years with Man Ray as well as a further definition of Surrealism. This room features Man Ray’s Object of Destruction sculpture as well as a replica of the drawing which appeared in The Quarter. The drawing had a rather chilling caption below it which reveals what Man Ray’s state of mind must have been over the break up with Miller. The point was raised in our discussion that wasn’t destruction part of art anyway?
Juxtaposed to this drawing or alongside (difficult to tell from the publication) is Miller’s photograph of Rats’ Tails. The downward direction and free swinging rats’ tails echo the movement of Man Ray’s metronome. Rats are also objects that we would wish to destroy.
Miller’s Severed Breast – difficult to see details from the thumbnails. But I find it quite a gruesome concept and for 1930 would definitely have caused a bit of consternation. The juxtaposed knife and fork with the breast on a dinner plate connotes the surgical procedure. I actually found this image rather disrespectful to the woman who had undergone the mastectomy.
Nude Bent Forward and Nude Backs – abstract views of a woman’s body, some slightly ambiguous – more about form.
Man Ray Shaving – good use of light and shadow – fun piece.
Self Portrait – stance mimics the Venus de Milo statue.
Impasse with Two Angels – a play between shadow and light – resembling arms/wings.
GALLERY 7 – Surrealist Hub in London – more in-depth historical facts about the artists who exhibited at the International Surrealist Exhibition. I’ve just made some brief comments on some of the works.
Last voyage by Captain Cook – Roland Penrose – wire globe featuring longitude and latitude lines with plaster cast of woman’s body inside. Body is painted in diagonal lines of differing widths in white, taupe, orange, blue, brown and black. The sculpture is mounted onto a wooden base and there is a small wooden object resting on the base as well. I have to admit that I did not understand this piece at all. According to the Tate website “Penrose later suggested that the striped torso represented the idea of woman being like the Earth. Among other associations, the work may suggest that Cook was an explorer of the mysterious and the erotic” (https://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/penrose-the-last-voyage-of-captain-cook-t03377).
Municipal School; Surrealist Landscape – Tristram Hillier – both muted tones with strong rectangular and square shapes. Drainage pipes feature in both paintings.
Dancers II – John Melville – shows movement and possibly sexuality?
The Philosopher – Giorgio de Chirico – reminds me of Rodin’s The Thinker to some extent. The proportions of this philosopher’s legs are out of sync with his arms and torso. Apparently this is one of his tropes (https://www.christies.com/features/10-things-to-know-about-de-Chirico-8880-1.aspx) The torso contains many icons that can be associated with a philosopher – scrolls, books, Doric pillars, lyre and a bust of either Plato or Socrates.
The Lovers, Adam and Eve – Joan Miró – childishly abstract with definite sexual connotations.
Composition – John Amhurst Selby-Bigge – another sexual rendition. Looks like a collection of vaginas with sperm.
Event on the Downs – Paul Nash – a slightly more relatable painting (to me anyway). ‘It is, however, more than a simple landscape. Indications of its meaning can be found in the incongruous placement of three motifs which are recurrent in Nash’s art of this time: the tennis ball, the tree stump and the cloud. Nash was then interested in Chinese art and philosophy, and the tennis ball should be read as an equivalent for the yin-yang symbol’ (https://artuk.org/discover/artworks/event-on-the-downs-28930).
Quadriga – Eileen Agar – Agar was born in Argentina and the colours in her paintings are reflective of the vibrant colours of this country. Uses bold, bright colours in this rendition of four horses heads.
Observatory Time: The Lovers – Man Ray – the lips are those of Lee Miller. Red lips dominate the canvas suggesting the passage of time from their break up and her departure.
The Stairway to Paradise – Reuben Mednikoff – for me this painting has sexual overtones again – hinting at life and expectancy, but I am most probably wrong. This type of work really does confuse me a lot.
Study of Three Figures – Salvador Dalí – I suppose I’ve had a little more exposure to Dali’s work as I experimented using some of his work in my photographs for Context and Narrative. His work has always struck me as being highly imaginative, yet there is enough ‘realism’ in it that makes it more relatable.
As They Wish – E. L. T. Mesens – photograph of a hand holding a knuckleduster. The title of the work implies a hidden threat.
Aries – John Banting – According to the Bridgeman site, Aries was Hitler’s birth sign as well as the god of war. This image heralds the approach of WWII.
Time for Tea (Foliage Fantasy) – John Banting – Banting was active in left wing politics and his contempt for the upper classes is seen in the titles and subjects of his work. Time for Tea may be a subversion of the social custom of afternoon tea. It is dominated by the sinister figure of a black bird surrounded by foliage and flowers shaped like male genitalia. The background has been made by rubbing over a textured surface (in this case leaves) a Surrealist technique known as frottage, pioneered by Max Ernst (https://www.southamptoncityartgallery.com/object/sotag-20023/).
Portrait of Eileen Agar – Helen Muspratt – Process of solarisation explained.
A Sudden Surrealist Invasion – Miller photographed the Surrealists artists at Penrose’s brother’s house in Cornwall. The artists were captured talking, making art, and at play. The photos reveal the close community that these Surrealists artists were.
Lens of Lizard Lighthouse and Eileen Agar at the Royal Pavilion, Brighton – Lee Miller show Miller’s deep interest in light and shadow to capture ambiguous images.
Surreal Objects and Poems
Onanistic Typewriter I – Conroy Maddox – described in The Independent “as a typical if unoriginal piece of Surrealist subterfuge in which a ready-made typewriter is rendered useless by its keyboards being transformed into spikes” (https://www.independent.co.uk/news/obituaries/conroy-maddox-5543505.html). Onanisism = coitus interruptus.
Lobster Telephone (White Aphrodisiac) – Salvador Dalí and Edward James – interesting backstory to this work. These type of backstories definitely help to create more of an interest in abstract and Surrealist work.
Portrait of Space, Al Bulwayeb, Near Siwa, Egypt’ – Lee Miller – DesignObserver describes the photograph: The portrait is of a landscape, not a person, though the shape of the clouds recalls the lips of Miller floating in the sky in Man Ray’s painting The Lovers (1934), and two hillocks on the right can be seen—if we adopt the Surrealist perspective invited by the picture—as a pair of eyes. The gaping hole in the fly screen is also a kind of eye, opening on the scene (https://designobserver.com/feature/exposure-portrait-of-space-by-lee-miller/39101).
The Joy of Life – Max Ernst – symbolises fear and suppressed desires of the human mind. Jungle undergrowth, but is really overscaled ordinary garden undergrowth.
Max Ernst, Farleys Garden, Farley Farm, East Sussex – Lee Miller – a play on Ernst’s Joy of Life painting. Miller photographs him hidden in the vegetation.
Mother and Child – Henry Moore (sculpture)
Antony Penrose and Mary Moore with Henry Moore’s sculpture ‘Mother and Child’, Farleys Garden, East Sussex – Lee Miller – photo of children with Moore’s sculpture.
Henry Moore with his sculpture ‘Mother and Child’, Farleys Garden, East Sussex – Lee Miller – photo of Moore hugging his sculpture.
Irina, Henry and Mary Moore and Antony Penrose with Henry Moore’s sculpture ‘Mother and Child’, Farleys Garden, East Sussex – Lee Miller – Photo of Moore family and Miller’s son with Moore’s sculpture.
‘Here is Vogue – in spite of all!’
Lee Miller in Hitler’s Bathtub, Hitler’s
Apartment, Munich – Lee Miller with David E.
Scherman – the photo that I’m probably most familiar with from Miller’s arsenal. There is something shocking and horrifying about this photo of a beautiful ex-model who was clearly clothed in combat fatigues, taking a bath where the orchestrator of atrocities too numerous to mention wallowed in the bathtub. I think this photo is very much an “up yours” to Hitler by Miller. As stated by her son in this news article, her combat boots were covered in the filth from Dachau and how ironic or fitting is that that dirt should be trampled all over Hitler’s apartment. (see image at: https://www.telegraph.co.uk/photography/what-to-see/lee-miller-woman-hitlers-bathtub/)
Page 9 – Image: Lee Miller, Eileen Agar at the Royal Pavilion, Brighton, 1937
What elements of this image do you think add to its ‘surreal’ qualities? The shadow and light areas of this image give it its surreal qualities. It is almost like the illusion where you look at a picture of a vase, but if you look closely again it is a picture of two faces in profile.
Who do you think is the figure captured to the left of the frame?
Inspired by Eleanor Clayton’s words, note down your own observations of this image. I believe the figure on the left of the frame is Lee Miller. Agar’s silhouette (bar the camera) reminds me of the dress that women in the Wild West used to wear. The column’s creases at the bottom of the frame form the folds of her dress.
Page 10 – Image: Lee Miller, Hands for the Job, Vogue Studio, London, 1942
What do you think of the observations of Dr Hilary Floe? How do her comments influence your interpretation of the images? While I mostly agree with Floe’s observations about the interpretation of the image, I can’t help wondering if this photograph was not staged. It is a well known fact that women were not allowed to wear metal objects (hair pins, jewellery, etc) in the munitions factories for fear of creating sparks that might set off an explosion. This Lady Dashwood is wearing a wedding ring.
Page 11 – Lee Miller, Corsetry, Solarised Photographs, London, England, 1942
What effect do you think this process of ‘solarisation’ has on the way the female body is represented in this photograph? Solarisation makes the female body appear thinner and more evocative.
Page 12 – Image: Lee Miller, David E. Scherman, dressed for war, London, England, 1942
This is the lead image for the promotion of the Lee Miller and Surrealism in Britain exhibition – why might it have been chosen by the curators and the museum for this purpose? The gas mask is very other worldly. It is a very strong image in that it conveys the sense of the uncanny very well. The juxtaposition of the cheerfully striped umbrella above this ‘creature’ with the ‘horrifying face’ works well to create surrealism.
Exhibition 2 – Viviane Sassen: Hot Mirror
What does The Hepworth Wakefield say? Read over the listing for the exhibition, copy and paste it into your learning log.
Hot Mirror presents a survey of work by internationally renowned Dutch artist and photographer Viviane Sassen.
Sassen is one of the most innovative photographers working today and cites Surrealism as one of her earliest artistic influences, seen in the uncanny shadows, fragmented bodies and dream-like landscapes in her work.
For Hot Mirror Sassen selects individual images from her notable art photography series of the last ten years, as well as new photographs and collages. These selections are be combined to create ‘image-poems’ that draw on the Surrealist strategies of collage. Hot Mirror also presents a new version of Sassen’s immersive film, Totem, 2014, which places the visitor inside a surreal landscape.
Hot Mirror is timed to sit alongside our exhibition exploring Lee Miller and Surrealism in Britain.
Highlight key words or statements, look up and record the definition of any words you might not be sure about. Identify three key points which inform your initial impression of the exhibition. Summarise on your learning log.
- Sassen is an innovative Dutch artist and photographer.
- Surrealism is one of her earliest influences.
- The exhibition focus on “image-poems” using Surrealist methods of collage.
In discussion one of the students remarked that Sassen’s work reminded her of Helen Sear’s Plaiser’ work which uses hot mirrors, there are the same sort of ideas running through the work – sexualized.
What does the press say? Read Irina Baconsky’s review of the exhibition for Dazed: http://www.dazeddigital.com/art-photography/article/40482/1/viviane-sassen-hot-mirror-hepworth-gallery-show-surrealist-dream.
- Sassen works with contrasts in her work: light/dark; life/death; dreams/reality.
- For her surrealism is a way of looking at something in an unbiased, unconventional way, rather like seeing as a child does.
- The Hot Mirror exhibition shows photographs from Sassen’s body of work over the last ten years, as well as new photographs and collages. These have been combined into ‘image-poems’ collages juxtaposing unexpected subjects.
- She draws a lot of her inspiration from the time she spent in Africa.
Page 17 – Image: HCG, from the series Mud and Lotus, 2017
What is this image depicting? How do you feel about it?
Is it shocking, is it beautiful? Write down your reaction and explain why you feel this way.
This image is depicting pregnancy which is confirmed by both the enlarged abdomen of the subject and also the title “HCG” which is a hormone that is produced by the placenta. Although the textures that Sassen uses are rather ‘yucky’ for want of a better word, they do lend a very organic feel to the image. The shape of the dark shadows surrounding and partially covering the body make me think of a hibiscus stamen rising up above its petals.
Page 18 – Image: Yellow Vlei, from the series Umbra, 2014
Visit the Tate website and learn more about Malevich’s Black Square: www.tate.org.uk/art/artists/kazimir-malevich-1561/five-ways-look-malevichs-black-square.
- First time someone made a painting that wasn’t of something. He wanted to abandon reality and concentrate on depicting forms and shapes.
- The black square first made its appearance in 1913 as a black curtain … Victory over the Sun, where the characters aimed to abolish reason by capturing the sun and destroying time.
- It’s a revolutionary symbol. He called this suprematism which is abstract art limited to geometric shapes using a limited range of colours. The black square was a new kind of art object. Malevitch promoted it as a sign of a new era of art. It was first exhibited in the middle of WWI and the Russian Revolution followed shortly thereafter. The artistic revolution Malevich was bringing about seems to reflect the social revolution that was happening. Malevich didn’t intend for the Black Square to be a representation of a real thing, but a symbol of a dawning new age.
- It was the first icon that wasn’t an icon. When the black square was first exhibited it was placed across the corner of a the wall where traditionally a Russian Orthodox icon would hang. Malevich wanted to show the Black Square to be of a special or spiritual significance, make it the star of the show and the overriding emblem of his new style. The black square became Malevitch’s motif.
- There is no right way of looking at it. The square is a motif and can stand in for other ideas.
Page 19 – Image: Marte #02, from the series Umbra, 2014
What does the inclusion of the mirror do in this portrait?
What is visible? What is hidden?
The inclusion of the mirror adds another layer to this portrait. It acts as a collage, turning the portrait into one of surrealism. Legs, reflection of legs, chaise lounge with a green blanket are visible. There is no torso attached to the legs. Neither does the viewer see any arms or head. The woman’s sexuality is totally hidden. Rather reminiscent of Francesca Woodman. Sassen’s work thwarts the male gaze by interrupting his view.
Page 20 – Image: Belladonna, from the series Parasomnia, 2010
Page 21 – Image: Inhale, from the series Parasomnia, 2011
Do you notice a trend throughout these images in Sassen’s use of fabric and paint? Why do you think she uses props or paints in this way? How does it affect the way we view the objects and/or people within the images?
Sassen uses fabric and paint to hide body parts. By stripping the subject of their identity (face), the viewer is left to put his/her own interpretation on the image.
Page 22 – Image: Totem, 2014 © Viviane Sassen, courtesy of Stevenson Gallery, Cape Town, South Africa
Given what you have read so far and learnt about Lee Miller and the Surrealists, do you think Sassen’s works are ‘surreal’? Why?
Sassen’s works are definitely surreal. Her photos and collages escape the boundaries of reality and appear to represent an alternative universe.
Page 23 – Image: Ra, from the series Mud and Lotus, 2017
Note the gesture captured in this image and the use of colour and shadow. Like the Lee Miller exhibition, this image was chosen as the lead promotional image for the Viviane Sassen: Hot Mirror exhibition. Why do you think this is?
It is an image of light and darkness, rich in colour contrast. The open handed gesture, duplicated in its dark shadow against the red background, represents possibilities/life. The colour white usually represents purity, light, beginnings, while blue is the colour of piety, wisdom, or sadness. Red is the colour of rage, but also of passion. It also represents both Cupid and the devil. This image epitomizes Sassen’s philosophy of an ever present duality.
Page 26 – Compare/Contrast
Which images or references were the most insightful or engaging for you as a reader?
In the Lee Miller exhibition, the gallery text panels provided the most insight into the Surrealism movement and Miller’s work. While the resource package was packed with much good information, it was quite a lot to get through and I didn’t get to reading the recommended texts, but did watch the short videos which were very helpful in putting everything into context.
In the Vivian Sassen exhibition, the images were more engaging to me. But I do think that had I not first worked through the Lee Miller exhibition, I would not have grasped Sassen’s work as easily. The same remark on the resource package applies here too.
From what you have read and observed, what is your lasting impression of Lee Miller’s work and contribution to art in Britain?
Miller has made an extremely important contribution to art not only in Britain, but in North America as well. Her work spans different genres and historically is of extreme importance with the documentation of WWII as well within the historical context of Surrealism.
Ask yourself the same about that of Viviane Sassen.
Although Sassen’s work is also Surrealist in nature, she is only beginning to carve out her career. Her work is very different to that of Miller, more vibrant and in keeping with today’s use of colour – more contemporary, but notwithstanding that there are similarities between both artists’ work. Sassen is definitely someone to study in more depth.
Do you have any unanswered questions about the life or work of these artists? What more would you like to know?
How did Miller manage to pull strings to go behind enemy lines during WWII?
Make sure you have read this article…
An eye for the uncanny: Viviane Sassen on her concurrent exhibition with Lee Miller. Words by Billie Muraben, Monday 25 June 2018
What similarities and differences do you observe between the work or approaches of Lee Miller and Viviane Sassen? Do you think the two exhibitions complement each other?
Both artists were models and were involved in fashion photography. Both photograph the uncanny, but while Miller concentrated on recording life as it happened, Sassen prefers to dabble in confusion and doesn’t make statements with her work. The two exhibitions complement each other because they work in antithesis of each other. Miller dealt with harsh subjects such as war, while Sassen deals with imaginative, ‘magical’ moments of her own creation. Both women favour using light and shadow in their work, but more so I think Sassen.
Michael Whyte who is doing Painting 2 suggested a great video link regarding an in-conversation between a curator at The Hepworth Wakefield and Viviane Sassen, which I will watch later. Link is: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ma4tD3vSQdo. He also mentioned a female artist who had painted the Last Supper: of; http://www.theflorentine.net/art-culture/2017/03/nelli-last-supper/ and the link to the Florentine women artists’ book https://www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/8890243457/ref=oh_aui_detailpage_o04_s00?ie=UTF8&psc=1.
For me the VCrit was doubly helpful in that it set the stage of how to go about preparing for a study visit. This is something that I’ve always felt I’ve muddled through, never quite sure how to approach them. It is extremely helpful to first read and compare the gallery’s introduction to the work and the press reviews. I now have a template of questions that I can apply to any exhibition that I visit which will hopefully inform my study visits in a more succinct manner. Now all I have to hope is that the local exhibitions in my rural neck of the woods do actually have some sort of press coverage!
The VCrit has also given me a much better understanding into Surrealism and allowed me to realise that this can and has on occassion informed my work. I just hadn’t realised it as such before. Now I will be more aware.
My sincere thanks to Helen Warburton who did an absolutely amazing job of providing the resource package and heading up the VCrits. It really is good to hear other tutors’ perspectives on things.